Property Damage

At Grigoras Law, we understand the various facets of property law, and we work diligently to help our clients, whether plaintiffs or defendants, in cases concerning damage to property. These cases often include general themes, such as trespass to land, nuisance, and claims under the strict liability rule from Rylands v. Fletcher.

What is Damage to Property?

Damage to property torts includes various forms of direct or indirect interference with one’s right to use, enjoy, and possess property. This can involve intentional, negligent, or strictly liable actions leading to property damage. Our legal team is proficient in handling claims related to trespass to land, nuisance (both public and private), and Rylands v. Fletcher. These doctrines often intersect, providing different legal interpretations of an event and can be used in conjunction to achieve optimal outcomes for our clients.


Nuisance arises when a defendant’s legal activities unreasonably interfere with the quiet use and enjoyment of another’s property rights. A nuisance may either be public, affecting the general public’s right to use public areas or private, causing substantial interference with an individual’s use and enjoyment of their land. Our team works to identify the most effective legal strategies for nuisance claims, considering factors such as the severity, duration, and character of the interference, the sensitivity of the plaintiff, and the utility of the defendant’s conduct.

Trespass to Land and Goods

Trespass to land occurs when a person unlawfully applies force to another’s land, either by entering without permission or acting beyond the scope of granted permission. Trespass to goods involves any unwarranted interference with another’s personal property. We provide expert legal representation for our clients who have been victims of trespass or accused of trespass, ensuring that all defences and relevant legal strategies are considered.

Rule in Rylands v. Fletcher

The rule from Rylands v. Fletcher represents a form of strict liability in which the defendant can be held accountable for property damage even without proven intent or negligence. This rule applies when the defendant brings onto their land something likely to cause damage if it escapes, and damage does indeed occur from that escape. At Grigoras Law, we are adept at navigating the complexities and controversies surrounding the application of this rule to effectively advocate for our clients.

Our Role

At Grigoras Law, we provide comprehensive legal representation to our clients dealing with damage to property claims. We assist clients in understanding the intricacies of their cases, analyzing all the possible defences, and deciding the most effective legal strategy. Whether you are a plaintiff seeking compensation for damage to your property or a defendant facing allegations, our team will work tirelessly to protect your rights and interests.

We handle all stages of litigation, including initiating or defending lawsuits, managing discovery, negotiating settlements, and, if necessary, arguing the case at trial. If you’re dealing with issues related to damage to property, we invite you to reach out to our team for guidance and support.


Disclaimer: The answers provided in this FAQ section are general in nature and should not be relied upon as formal legal advice. Each individual case is unique, and a separate analysis is required to address specific context and fact situations. For comprehensive guidance tailored to your situation, we welcome you to contact our expert team.

Nuisance in legal parlance is an act causing substantial and unreasonable interference with a person’s use or enjoyment of their property. Nuisance can come in various forms and contexts. Here are a few instances (based on previous cases) where certain actions can be regarded as a nuisance:

  1. Creating drainage ditches without appropriate licensing: A court may consider it a nuisance when a defendant unreasonably creates three drainage ditches that result in flooding to the plaintiff’s land. The defendant would have to first obtain a license under the relevant water legislation to carry out such activities. This is rooted in the principle that it is never reasonable for one landowner to drain land at the expense of another.

  2. Diverting water to a neighbour’s property: Installing a pipe for the purpose of diverting water to a neighbour’s property, in order to avoid the natural drainage of a neighbour’s property on one’s own property, may also be considered a nuisance. This action does not constitute a normal use of land.

  3. Failure to maintain a drainage pipe: If a landowner neglects to maintain a drainage pipe, and this results in a loss of enjoyment for the plaintiff, such negligence could be characterized as a nuisance. The harm here could be physical damage to the plaintiff’s property or simply an undue inconvenience.

  4. Damage caused by water or sewage lines: There have been many cases where damage to property, caused by issues like water or sewage lines, has led to courts finding municipalities liable for nuisance. This usually occurs when the municipality fails to uphold its duty to maintain these essential utilities.

However, it’s important to note that not every inconvenience qualifies as a nuisance. For instance, placing an object in waters that obstructs the neighbour’s view is not regarded as a nuisance, as loss of enjoyment of a view does not constitute a nuisance.

These examples provide an overview of the kinds of activities that can be considered a nuisance. However, whether a specific act will be deemed a nuisance often depends on the circumstances and severity of the interference, and such determinations are usually made on a case-by-case basis.

The rule in Rylands v. Fletcher, a well-established common law principle, could be invoked in a property damage claim case between two neighbours. This rule establishes strict liability for damage caused by the non-natural use of one’s land which results in an escape of something harmful onto a neighbouring property.

To break it down further, here’s how the rule might apply:

Strict Liability Rule: According to the rule in Rylands v. Fletcher, the owner of a property who brings something onto their land (which is likely to do mischief if it escapes) is liable for any damage caused if it does escape, even if they took every possible care to prevent it from doing so. For instance, let’s consider a hypothetical scenario: if one neighbour constructed a large water reservoir on their property (which is not a typical, natural use of residential land), and due to some mishap, the water overflowed into the adjoining property causing damage, under this rule, the neighbour who constructed the reservoir would be strictly liable.

Non-Natural Use of Land: A key element of the rule is that it applies to a “non-natural” use of land. This essentially means an unusual or special use of the land that brings with it an increased risk of harm to others. The question of whether a use is “non-natural” can be somewhat subjective and depends on various factors. For example, while a small garden pond might be considered a natural use of a property, a large artificial lake or a chemical storage facility would likely be considered non-natural uses.

It’s important to note that the test for “non-natural” use does not necessarily relate to whether the use is unnatural in a common-sense way. It rather refers to a use that is special and not ordinary, which introduces a new danger to the vicinity that did not exist before.

General Benefit for the Community: If the use of the land is for the general benefit of the community, the rule in Rylands v. Fletcher does not apply. This caveat exists because certain necessary activities, although potentially hazardous, are beneficial or essential for the community at large. For example, if a city constructs a water tower (a non-natural use) that ends up leaking and causing damage, the city may not be liable because the tower provides a general benefit to the community.

However, it’s important to remember that the application of this rule can vary significantly depending on jurisdiction and specific factual circumstances. Certain jurisdictions might interpret and apply these principles differently, and factors such as local laws, regulations, and precedents could have an important impact on the case. Therefore, anyone dealing with a potential Rylands v. Fletcher situation should seek specific legal advice.

The key difference between a nuisance and a trespass to land lies primarily in the directness and physicality of the interference with a person’s property rights. Both nuisances and trespasses are forms of interference, however, they are distinctly different in terms of the nature and manner of the interference.

Trespass to Land

A trespass to land occurs when there is a direct and physical intrusion onto another person’s property. This requires the interference to be immediate and tangible, involving an unauthorized entry, or the placement or projection of some material object on the property.

Examples of trespass might include throwing stones onto someone else’s property or deliberately discharging a substance such as water or oil onto another’s property. Notably, the nature of the substance, whether it’s toxic or non-toxic, does not factor into determining whether a trespass has occurred. The primary concern is the direct and unjustifiable interference with possession.


A nuisance, on the other hand, involves indirect interference with a person’s enjoyment of their property. It is generally caused by something that originates elsewhere but subsequently affects the plaintiff’s land.

For instance, allowing stones from a crumbling chimney to fall onto a neighbour’s property could be considered a nuisance. Other examples could include a noise or smell that crosses property boundaries or substances like water or oil that unintentionally flow or seep onto another person’s property. An important consideration here is that the defendant must have had some degree of control over the interference, although the situation doesn’t necessarily have to be one of “no control whatsoever.”

Direct vs Indirect Interference

Determining whether an interference is direct or indirect isn’t always clear-cut and may depend on the specifics of the case. For instance, a fence leaning onto a neighbour’s property due to natural forces like frost and snow might not constitute a trespass because the intrusion is beyond the defendant’s control. Likewise, a discharge of oil into the sea that eventually washes up onto someone else’s property might be considered a nuisance rather than a trespass because the interference is consequential rather than direct.

It’s also worth noting that the tangibility of the offending item isn’t the sole determinant of liability. For instance, nuisances could involve tangible objects like golf balls, water, or sewage. The key factor is not the substance itself but how it ended up on the other person’s property.


In essence, trespass to land involves direct, physical interference with another’s property, while nuisance pertains to indirect interference that affects a person’s enjoyment of their property. The nuances of each case can be complex, and the characterization of an act as a nuisance or a trespass might differ based on the specific circumstances. It’s always recommended to consult with a legal professional to fully understand the implications of these legal concepts in a particular situation.

The liability of the city for damage caused by sewage overflow onto your property from city property largely depends on the laws in your specific jurisdiction. However, there are some general principles of liability that are common across jurisdictions.

Municipalities can often be found liable in nuisance for damage caused to property due to water overflow unless legislation states otherwise. This would be applicable in cases like yours where sewage is overflowing from city property onto your own property and causing damage.

However, this liability is not absolute. The city may be able to avoid liability if it can show that the damage was an unavoidable result of an exercise of its statutory authority. Essentially, the city would need to prove that it had no alternative ways of managing the sewage and that it was practically impossible to avoid the nuisance in the course of carrying out its duties. This is a narrow defence and can be difficult for the city to establish.

Some jurisdictions may exempt municipalities from liability for damage caused by an overflow of water, such as in a sewer, drain, ditch, or watercourse if the overflow is due to natural causes like excessive snow, ice, or rain. It’s also worth noting that in some places, like Manitoba, the Crown (or government) can’t face greater liability than a municipality.

In some jurisdictions, the law may be designed to limit liability claims against municipalities to instances of negligence. This would require showing a higher standard of care, meaning that the city or one of its employees was directly responsible for the overflow due to a failure to act with proper care.

For instance, in Alberta and Prince Edward Island, legislation states that a city can only be held liable for water overflow damage if it can be shown that the overflow was due to the negligence of the city or one of its employees. British Columbia limits or precludes nuisance liability for municipalities in cases involving the breakdown or malfunction of sewer or water systems. Newfoundland and Labrador precludes nuisance liability for municipalities altogether.

However, in jurisdictions like Ontario, the exemption only applies to “escapes” of water or sewage, meaning if the damage is caused by surface water, the municipality may still be liable in nuisance.

In conclusion, the city’s liability for the sewage overflow damaging your property depends largely on the specific laws and regulations in your jurisdiction. If you are dealing with such a situation, it is highly recommended to consult with a legal professional who can provide guidance based on your local laws.

According to common law principles, a lower land proprietor, or the owner of a property at a lower elevation, is not obligated to receive surface waters that drain from neighbouring upper land. This means that you, as the lower land owner, have the right to erect a barrier, such as a wall or an embankment, to prevent the overflow of surface water onto your property from your neighbour’s property. This protection applies even if your action causes the water to backflow and overflow onto your neighbour’s lands.

However, it’s important to remember that the same laws also prohibit any landowner from draining their land at the expense of their neighbours. If you were to alter your property in a way that unreasonably interferes with your neighbour’s property—for instance, by causing them water damage—you could be held liable for creating a nuisance.

This rule is clearly reflected in the case of Dankiewicz v. Sullivan, in which a landowner was found liable for altering the grade of his backyard in a way that caused water to drain into his neighbour’s yard and pool there. The court ruled that this constituted a nuisance and awarded the plaintiff $5,000 for the distress, inconvenience, and interference with her enjoyment of her land, in addition to special damages for her out-of-pocket expenses related to the flooding.

Furthermore, in Ivall v. Aguiar, the defendants were held liable for damages when they altered the topography of their property, resulting in flooding on the plaintiffs’ property. The court found that the defendants had unreasonably interfered with the plaintiffs’ use and enjoyment of their property and had acted negligently, showing disregard for their neighbours’ safety.

Therefore, while you have the right to protect your property from surface water drainage from your neighbour’s property, you must also be cautious not to create a situation that interferes unreasonably with your neighbour’s property. If you’re considering making modifications to deal with drainage issues, it might be advisable to consult with a legal expert in property law to ensure you’re acting within your rights and not inadvertently causing a nuisance or infringing on your neighbour’s rights.

If you’re in a situation where a flooding issue has prompted a lawsuit, you are not necessarily required to wait until the conclusion of the trial for the flooding problem to be addressed. The legal system recognizes that ongoing issues, such as persistent flooding, may continue to cause harm during the duration of a lawsuit, and thus offers a remedy known as an interlocutory injunction.

An interlocutory injunction is a provisional remedy that a court can issue before the trial to prevent ongoing damage to your property caused by water. It’s essentially a court order that can require the defendant (or another relevant party) to take (or stop taking) specific actions to mitigate the damage, even before the lawsuit has fully played out.

Obtaining an interlocutory injunction involves a three-stage test:

  1. Is there a serious question to be tried? This means that your claim should be substantive and hold reasonable prospects of success.

  2. Would you, the applicant, suffer irreparable harm if the injunction was not granted? The harm could be physical damage, financial loss, or other significant detriment that could not be adequately compensated by damages at the end of the trial.

  3. Does the balance of convenience favour you or the respondent? This part of the test requires the court to weigh up the respective harms that each party would suffer from either granting or denying the injunction. If the harm you would suffer without the injunction outweighs the inconvenience to the defendant if the injunction is granted, this element may be satisfied.

Once a nuisance, such as flooding, is established, an injunction is likely to be issued, unless the defendant can demonstrate special circumstances.

Additionally, an interim injunction may be granted if the defendant’s actions may result in a public nuisance.

In situations where the plaintiff has successfully shown damage to their property caused by the defendant’s trespassing or improper water drainage, the court may grant an injunction prohibiting future acts of trespass or requiring the defendant to ensure proper drainage. This could include orders for the defendant to ensure all downspouts on their house are directed appropriately to prevent flooding your property.

Remember, if you win at trial, the court has a broad power to order the defendant to take remedial actions to stop the flooding. The specific actions ordered by the court would be based on the circumstances of your case and the evidence presented at trial.

While this information can help you get a sense of the process, you should consult with a legal professional who can provide advice based on the specific details of your situation.

In many jurisdictions, the answer to whether you can sue a farm for nuisance due to the odour from pig manure depends on several key factors.

Firstly, it is important to note that many regions have laws in place to protect farmers and municipalities from liability arising from various disturbances, which could include odour, dust, flies, light, smoke, noise and vibration. This protection generally applies if the farmers are employing “normal farm practices” and are not in violation of specific acts or regulations.

For instance, in Ontario, the Farming and Food Production Protection Act offers such protection to farmers. According to this Act, a “disturbance” as caused by a farm operation – including an odour from manure – does not give grounds for a nuisance claim, provided the farm is adhering to the standards and practices outlined within the act.

It is important to understand what constitutes “normal farm practices.” These practices are generally those which are customary in the farming industry and are not likely to cause harm to neighbours under normal circumstances. However, the specifics can vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and can change over time as farming technologies and practices evolve.

This means that in order to have a successful claim, you would likely need to demonstrate that the farm is not using normal farm practices, or is violating some other specified act or regulation. Such a violation could potentially provide grounds for a nuisance claim.

However, proving this can be complex and often requires detailed knowledge of farming practices, local laws and regulations, and the specifics of the farm operation in question. It would likely require expert testimony and could potentially be a costly and time-consuming process.

In conclusion, while it may be possible to sue for nuisance in such a situation, there are many factors to consider, and it can be a complex process. If you believe you may have a claim, you should consult with a lawyer who is knowledgeable in this area of law.

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