Defamation in the Age of Online Trolls

Denis Grigoras

Denis is a lawyer who draws on his background in complex legal disputes and transactions to problem-solve for his clients.

The freedom of the internet allows for uninhibited self-expression. While many embrace this freedom to share positive stories, ideas, and feedback, others exploit it to spread malicious rumors or make derogatory comments without facing immediate consequences. The cloak of anonymity can embolden such individuals, making the internet a potential hotbed for defamation.

Online Trolls


In our digital age, with the ease of online communication, the phenomenon of anonymous interactions has surged. While it often fosters creativity and candid expression, it can also be a breeding ground for harmful or defamatory remarks. How does one navigate the complex Canadian legal landscape when defamed by an anonymous online entity? This blog post provides some clarity.

The Double-Edged Sword of Online Anonymity

The freedom of the internet allows for uninhibited self-expression. While many embrace this freedom to share positive stories, ideas, and feedback, others exploit it to spread malicious rumors or make derogatory comments without facing immediate consequences. The cloak of anonymity can embolden such individuals, making the internet a potential hotbed for defamation.

For victims, the primary challenge is unmasking these anonymous entities. The instinctual first step is often to approach the Internet Service Provider (ISP), hoping they hold the key to the defamer’s identity.

One illustrative case from 2000 involved Irwin Toy Limited and its president who alleged defamation through emails sent by an anonymous subscriber of ISP iPrimus Canada. The court’s decision recognized the tacit mutual understanding of online anonymity. However, it also emphasized that when defamation is evident, the scales might tip in favor of revealing the defamer’s identity.

Balancing Acts: Freedom, Reputation, and the ISP’s Role

Central to the discourse on online defamation is the delicate balance between freedom of expression and protection of reputation. The Hill v. Church of Scientology of Toronto ruling by the Supreme Court of Canada stands as a testament to this struggle, as courts grapple to ensure neither right is disproportionately compromised.

However, the role of ISPs in this balance cannot be understated. Their decision to release user identities without due notification or without challenging such requests can be seen as a breach of trust. It jeopardizes their privacy policies and challenges the very ethos of online privacy they pledge to uphold.

Online anonymity and its potential for defamation present a dichotomy. Some argue that the unknown identity of a poster can lend more weight to their words, causing the defamation to sting even harder. Conversely, others contend that the anonymous nature of such comments renders them less credible in the eyes of discerning readers.

The Legal Labyrinth of Unmasking Anonymous Posters

The legal framework around unmasking anonymous internet users is intricate. The 2010 case, Warman v. Wilkins-Fournier, is particularly significant in setting a precedent. It introduced key principles that judges must consider, including the expectation of anonymity, evidence of defamation, efforts made to identify the defamer, and a delicate weighing of public interest against individual rights.

Additionally, the “Norwich order” emerges as a potent tool for plaintiffs. It aims to unveil the identity of anonymous entities through a meticulous assessment of evidence, the relationship with third parties holding potential information, the exclusivity of this information source, possible indemnification concerns, and overarching justice interests.

Both the Warman principles and the “Norwich order” considerations are pivotal in guiding court decisions, emphasizing the importance of service agreements and potential disclosure clauses for online misconduct.

The Digital Dilemma: Minors, Cyberbullying, and Online Anonymity

The digital age presents unique challenges, especially when minors are involved. A poignant example is A.B. v. Bragg Communications Inc. This case highlighted the complex interplay between privacy rights, freedom of expression, and open court principles, further complicated by the omnipresence of social media among youth. In A.B. v. Bragg Communications Inc., a teenager sought a court order to compel an internet provider to reveal the identity of an individual who created a fake Facebook profile in her name, which disclosed personal details and included sexual remarks. The profile was discovered and removed in March 2010. While Facebook revealed the IP address used to create the profile, the identity of the creator was known only to the respondent internet provider. The provider did not oppose disclosing the identity. Media outlets contested any confidentiality order.

The court decided to shorten the notice period, as the applicant presented a strong initial case of defamation. The statements on the fake profile were public and damaging to her reputation. With no other means to identify the perpetrator, the court ordered the provider to disclose the creator’s identity. The individual behind the profile couldn’t reasonably expect privacy after trying to tarnish the applicant’s public image. Public interest favoured disclosure and raising awareness about cyberbullying. However, the court found no evidence suggesting serious harm to the applicant from publicizing the case and, thus, denied a publication ban or use of pseudonyms.

The profile used her picture, slightly altered her name, and contained derogatory comments about her appearance, along with sexual references. She intended to use the identity information of the cyberbully to file a defamation suit. The court initially ruled that while the internet provider must reveal the identity of the profile creator, the girl couldn’t proceed anonymously, nor could there be a publication ban. The reason was a lack of sufficient evidence indicating specific harm to her.

The teenager then went to the Supreme Court of Canada to appeal the denial of her right to anonymously seek the identity of the cyberbully and to impose a publication ban on its content. On appeal, the court weighed the open court principle against the privacy rights of children, especially in the context of cyberbullying. While court proceedings are typically open, the girl’s privacy was paramount due to her age and the nature of her online victimization. The court reasoned that children might avoid legal action against cyberbullying if they feared public disclosure. It determined that the benefits of allowing victims to seek protection anonymously outweighed the open court principle’s risks.

The appeal was thus partially allowed. The girl could proceed anonymously in her quest to get the internet provider to reveal the identity of the IP users behind the fake profile. However, no publication ban would be placed on the non-identifying content of the fake profile.

This landmark decision underscores the unique vulnerabilities of minors in the digital era and might set the stage for future cases involving minors in similar predicaments.

Practical Advice for Potential Victims

If you believe you’re a victim of online defamation:

  1. Document Everything: Save screenshots, URLs, and timestamps. This will serve as evidence.

  2. Consult a Lawyer: Seek guidance on the best course of action, given the intricate legal landscape.

  3. Engage the Platform: Report the defamatory content to the website or platform hosting it.

  4. Stay Calm and Rational: While it’s a distressing situation, avoid retaliating or feeding online trolls.

In Conclusion

The collision of technology, law, and human rights has forced a reevaluation of long-held beliefs about privacy, reputation, and freedom of expression. For anyone navigating the challenges of online defamation in Canada, understanding the evolving legal landscape and seeking expert counsel is crucial. As the digital realm continues to evolve, so too will the laws and norms that govern it.

Example: Clancy v. Farid, [2023] O.J. No. 2970


This case, adjudicated in the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, revolves around plaintiffs led by Tracy Clancy taking legal action against defendant Tanvir Farid, also recognized by the alias Tanvir Islam. This litigation stands out for its intensive scrutiny of cyber defamation and cyber harassment in our current digital age.

Defendant’s Actions:

  • Malicious Intent: Farid’s actions were characterized by a deliberate and calculated plan. Over an extended period, he committed cyber defamation and harassment, disseminating his derogatory content across various online platforms. Personal rejection fueled his actions, underlining the motive of revenge.

  • Anonymity and Deception: Farid adeptly used the internet’s vast expanse and inherent anonymity to his advantage. By employing a variety of devices and posting from different public locations, he effectively masked his identity. His tactics demonstrate the intricacies and challenges of online defamation.

  • Evasion of Justice: Farid’s efforts to obstruct justice extended beyond his online activities. It necessitated a court order to eventually reveal his true identity. To further evade responsibility, Farid intentionally deleted pivotal evidence post the commencement of the lawsuit.

  • Impact on Plaintiffs: Farid’s transgressions were multi-pronged. He consistently breached the privacy of the plaintiffs. Concurrently, he endeavoured to sully their professional standing and disrupt their personal lives, illustrating a clear intent to inflict comprehensive harm.

Court’s Decision on Damages:

  • General Damages: Acknowledging the profound harm caused by Farid’s actions, the court awarded each plaintiff general damages ranging from $50,000 to $95,000. This significant range illustrates the varying degrees of harm experienced by different plaintiffs.

  • Aggravated Damages: Beyond the general damages, each plaintiff was awarded $1,500 in aggravated damages. These damages further underscore the court’s recognition of the malicious intent and emotional distress caused by the defendant’s actions.

  • Punitive Damages: Highlighting the defendant’s malicious, vindictive, high-handed, and reprehensible behaviour, the court deemed this case apt for punitive damages. Drawing from Justice Cory’s perspective in Hill, the court highlighted that punitive damages are intended to reprimand the defendant, not merely compensate the victims. As a gesture of the court’s severe disapproval, each plaintiff was granted $9,000 in punitive damages.


Clancy v. Farid emerges as an interesting decision, accentuating the severity and legal consequences of cyber defamation and cyber harassment. The case vividly depicts the extent to which online individuals can harm others and the subsequent stringent legal measures they could encounter. The awarded damages, both general and punitive, underline the importance of digital accountability in today’s interconnected world.

Have false statements harmed the value of your property, goods, or unique techniques? Discover if you have a case for malicious falsehood.

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