At its root, fraud is an intentional deception resulting in an injury to another. It usually consists of a misrepresentation, concealment or nondisclosure of a material fact, or at least misleading conduct, devices or contrivance.
Although there are different types of fraud that may be alleged, a plaintiff must generally establish the following elements of fraud: (i) a false and material misrepresentation made by one who either knows it is falsity or is ignorant of its truth, (ii) the maker's intent that the representation be relied on by the person and in a manner reasonably contemplated, (iii) the person's ignorance of the falsity of the representation, (iv) the person's rightful or justified reliance, and (v) proximate injury to the person.
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 Definitions taken from Barron's Canadian Law Dictionary, 6th ed. (New York: Barron's Educational Series, 2009).